pecan tree scientific name

pecan tree scientific name

In their native range, pecan trees are usually found growing in an area with deep, moist soil, such as a river or creek bottom. [27] Other applications of cooking with pecans include pecan oil and pecan butter. The pecan, in various aspects, is included in state symbols of Alabama, Arkansas, California, Oklahoma, and Texas. Widely cultivated by commercial growers throughout the Southeastern portion of the United … 2. Forest trees have a straight trunk and compact, pyramidal crowns. Pecans first became known to Europeans in the 16th century. The nuts, or pecans, are produced during the summer and fall from the tree in the autumn. [21] Some regions of the U.S. such as parts of Florida and Puerto Rico are zone 10 or higher, and these regions have limited options for pecan cultivation. Your climate may not be conducive for pecan tree growth or your state has not released its recommendations. New varieties of pecan trees were introduced when the practice of grafting together two trees with superior characteristics gained popularity in the 1800s. [34], In 1919, the 36th Texas Legislature made the pecan tree the state tree of Texas; in 2001, the pecan was declared the state's official "health nut", and in 2013, pecan pie was made the state's official pie. [14] Commercial growers are most concerned with the ABI, which describes a cultivar's likelihood to bear on alternating years (index of 1.0 signifies highest likelihood of bearing little to nothing every other year). Pecans are subject to a wide range of diseases, pests, and physiological disorders that can limit tree growth and fruit production. [18] Little or no breeding work has been done with these populations. [12] As of 2014, the United States produced an annual crop of 119.8 million kilograms (264.2 million pounds), with 75% of the total crop produced in Georgia, New Mexico and Texas. Because of their familiarity with the genus Juglans, these early explorers referred to the nuts as nogales and nueces, the Spanish terms for "walnut trees" and "fruit of the walnut". In a 100 g reference amount, pecans provide 691 Calories and a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of total fat, protein, dietary fiber (38% DV), manganese (214% DV), magnesium (34% DV), phosphorus (40% DV), zinc (48% DV), and thiamin (57% DV) (table). Shop by Quality - Type 1 - Type 2 - Pap For effective pollination, it is important to have a tree that first produces male flowers (catkins) planted near a tree that first produces female (pistillate) flowers.. Pecan trees that produce male flowers, or pollen, first are called protandrous, and those that flowers first are called protogynous. Trunks mature to 2-4’ in diameter. The pecan (Carya illinoinensis) is a species of hickory native to northern Mexico and the southern United States in the region of the Mississippi River. Before European settlement, pecans were widely consumed and traded by Native Americans. Pecan trees are not only grown for nut production in large orchards, but also in landscapes for their attractive shape and dense shade. Pecan falls into the Pecan-Hickory grouping , which tends to be slightly stabler but weaker than the True-Hickories, and is considered to be a semi-ring-porous wood. The scions were supplied by Dr. A. E. Colomb who had unsuccessfully attempted to graft them himself. This was accomplished by a slave called Antoine in 1846 or 1847, who was owned by Jacques Telesphore Roman of the Oak Alley Plantation near the Mississippi river. Young pecan tree leaves often look the same as the leaves of many other types of trees, making it a challenge to identify them while the plants are immature. However, many plantings do not produce because of poor variety, poor site selection, lack of fertilization, or poor insect and disease control. It is a popular old cultivar which has originated as seedling in Mississippi. The leaves often resemble those from members of the hickory tree family. New varieties of pecan trees were introduced when the practice of grafting together two trees with superior characteristics gained popularity in the 1800s. [36][37] Alabama named the pecan the official state nut in 1982. Pecan trees are enormous and can grow to between 66 and 130 ft. (20 – 40 m) tall. Various other disorders are documented, including canker disease and shuck decline complex. HIPE: Hicoria pecan (Marshall) Britton [citation needed]. Pecan trees are native to the United States, and writing about the pecan tree goes back to the nation's founders. Pecan wood is used in making furniture and wood flooring,[28] as well as a flavoring fuel for smoking meats, giving grilled foods a sweet and nutty flavor stronger than many fruit woods. The pecan tree (Carya illinoinenis) is a native American tree that loses its leaves in the winter and produces delicious, meaty nuts in the fall. The crops of sweet nuts are abundant and contine regardless of age. The first Europeans to come into contact with pecans were Spanish explorers in what is now Louisiana, Texas, and Mexico. [8], A pecan, like the fruit of all other members of the hickory genus, is not truly a nut, but is technically a drupe, a fruit with a single stone or pit, surrounded by a husk. The bark ranges from brown to gray and is rough. A 10-year-old sapling grown in optimal conditions will stand about 5 m (16 ft) tall. Although wild pecans were well known among native and colonial Americans as a delicacy, the commercial growing of pecans in the United States did not begin until the 1880s. The trees are very resistant to diseases and ripen from early- to mid-September. When selecting a pecan variety for home planting, the most important factor to consider Native American tribes harvested wild pecans and were the first to cultivate pecan trees. The nuts, known as pecans, are a frequent addition to baked goods and desserts. To summarize, it may be difficult to distinguish between pecan varieties. By the 1700s, American settlers were cultivating pecans, and a pecan export business soon followed. Pecan trees are wind pollinated. It typically grows 75-100’ (infrequently to 150’) tall with a large rounded spreading crown. Pecan cultivars vary widely in yield potential, nut quality, date of maturity, tree form and resistance to insects and diseases. Scab is currently the most destructive disease affecting pecan trees untreated with fungicides. You can then estimate the age of the tree by multiplying this growth factor by the DBH in inches. It bears within 6-10 years of planting. Shop by State Find your state and shop by pecan recommendations from your local Agricultural Extension Agent. A seeping pecan tree is more than likely afflicted with pecan tree aphids. Open grown pecan trees have massive trunks and oval or rounded wide spreading crowns of branches that extend far down the trunk. Commercial production of pecans was slow because trees are slow to mature and bear fruit. The ratio of oleic to linoleic acids are inverted between wind- and animal-dispersed seeds. [31][32] Further differentiation from other species of Juglandaceae occurred about 44 million years ago during the Eocene. Pecan tree varieties known for stronger branches are more desirable for planting in a landscape because they require less maintenance. Pecan trees grow wild in the United States and also are cultivated widely for their fruit, the pecan nut, and wood with its beautiful grain. As a wild forage, the fruit of the previous growing season is commonly still edible when found on the ground. The Centennial cultivar was the first to be successfully grafted. The fruits of the pecan genus Carya differ from those of the walnut genus Juglans only in the formation of the husk of the fruit. The pecan tree is native to North America, and most pecan tree varieties grow well from Illinois down to Florida and across the south to Texas. The pecan is a large tree with a narrow, pyramid-shaped crown in the forest, and a broad and rounded crown in the open. Pecan trees need sunlight for optimal nut production. Pecan Varieties – Identification Q: I have several different types of pecan trees. Pecan trees originated in central and eastern North America. Kanza, a northern-adapted release from the USDA breeding program, is a grafted pecan having high productivity and quality, and cold tolerance.[25]. New varieties of pecan trees were introduced when the practice of grafting together two trees with superior characteristics gained popularity in the 1800s. Hybrids are referred to as "hicans" to indicate their hybrid origin. The pecan tree (Carya illinoinenis) is a native American tree that loses its leaves in the winter and produces delicious, meaty nuts in the fall. [24] The long cycle time for pecan trees plus financial considerations dictate that new varieties go through an extensive vetting process before being widely planted. Overwintering occurs as a single egg laid of a neotenous female in the rough bark or crevices on the tree. [35] The town of San Saba, Texas claims to be "The Pecan Capital of the World" and is the site of the "Mother Tree" (c. 1850) considered to be the source of the state's production through its progeny. Cultivar selection is the most important factor in purchasing pecan trees. Check out our BARE ROOT PECANS. Varieties of pecan trees that are protandrous, or produce pollen first, are Cape Fear, Pawnee, Onliwon, Desirable, Clark, Moore and Western. The husks are produced from the exocarp tissue of the flower, while the part known as the nut develops from the endocarp and contains the seed. [23] University of Georgia has a breeding program at the Tifton campus working to select pecan varieties adapted to subtropical southeastern U.S. growing conditions.[2]. The name "pecan" comes from an Algonquin word that describes nuts cracked with a stone. If you are planting an orchard, you need to know the eventual height and width of your chosen varieties so the trees are not crowded. All trees produce both male and female flowers but not at the same time. Varieties that are available and adapted (e.g., 'Major', 'Martzahn', 'Witte', 'Greenriver', 'Mullahy', and 'Posey') in zones 6 and farther north are almost entirely selections from wild stands. The first fossil examples of the family appear during the Cretaceous. Pollination is the exchange of pollen between trees to fertilize the flowers so the tree can produce pecans. For more information regarding what tree varieties are best for your neighborhood, contact your local extension agent: Find My Cooperative Extension : Free Shipping on Orders $100+ George Washington reported in his journal that Thomas Jefferson gave him "Illinois nuts", pecans, which Washington then grew at Mount Vernon, his Virginia home. The trees vary very little, the main noticeable difference being the size of the nut produced. Do you have a chart that shows the types of pecans and their names so I can easily identify my pecans? A few selections from native stands have been made such as Frutosa and Norteña which are recommended for cultivation in Mexico. The cultivar ‘Centennial’ was grafted in Louisiana in 1846 (Sparks 1992). Pecan trees are heat-tolerant and typically grow well in the warmer climates of the South and West (Zones 7-9). In North Carolina, pecan … [30], The pecan, Carya illinoinensis, is a member of the Juglandaceae family. By the 1700s, American settlers were cultivating pecans, and a pecan export business soon followed. Pecan genus and other classification is necessary information to know for every botanist. Numerous varieties produce well in Texas, but fail in the Southeastern U.S. due to increased disease pressure. Jay Golberg is a certified Texas nursery professional and professional project manager. UGA Pecan Team Blog The UGA Pecan Extension Blog is designed to provide timely information relevant to pecan production in Georgia for use by county extension agents and pecan producers.. Pecans at UGA Summarizes the history and recent production output of Georgia's pecan growers. This represents a gap in breeding development given that native pecans can be cultivated at least down to the Yucatan peninsula while the USDA cultivars have chilling hour requirements greater than occur in much of the region. They can be eaten fresh or used in cooking, particularly in sweet desserts, such as pecan pie, a traditional Southern U.S. dish. More importantly, the trees grown from nuts of one tree have very diverse characters. Facts about pecan trees may surprise and even astonish you. Pecan, (Carya illinoinensis), nut and tree of the walnut family (Juglandaceae) native to temperate North America. Extant examples of Engelhardioideae are generally tropical and evergreen, while those of Juglandioideae are deciduous and found in more temperate zones. We have compiled a collection of pecan pictures for your viewing pleasure. Recommendations for preventive spray materials and schedules are available from state level resources. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Pecan flowers from March to May about a week after the leaves have started to open. Everything about the pecan tree (Carya illinoinensis) is supersize, from its soaring height to its long lifespan to its enormous annual nut harvest. [19][20] Improved varieties recommended for cultivation in Mexico are USDA developed cultivars. Pecans have been cultivated for a relatively short period of time. Native American tribes harvested wild pecans and were the first to cultivate pecan trees. On older trees, the bark forms large, flattened, scale-like patches. [1] The tree is cultivated for its seed in the southern United States, primarily in Georgia,[2] New Mexico,[3] and Texas,[4] and in Mexico, which produces nearly half of the world total. The husks of walnuts develop from the bracts, bracteoles, and sepals, or sepals only. The scientific name of Pecan is the botanical name or formal name. [22], Active breeding and selection is carried out by the USDA Agricultural Research Service with growing locations at Brownwood and College Station, Texas. Not finding the variety you want? Websites UGA-affiliated sites. He has 30 years of business and farming experience and holds bachelor's degrees in English writing from St. Edward's University and finance from Lamar University. Pecan Genus and Other Classification Genus is a group of plants which are related to each other in some or the other way. The tree is cultivated for its seed in the southern United States, primarily in Georgia, New Mexico, and Texas, and in Mexico, which produces nearly half of the world total. Production potential drops significantly when planted further north than Tennessee. 'Western' is the only commonly available variety that can make a crop in low chill zones. Copyright Leaf Group Ltd. // Leaf Group Lifestyle. Pecan nuts were derived from seedling pecan trees until about 150 years ago. Nuts are large, of … The husk itself is aeneous, that is, brassy greenish-gold in color, oval to oblong in shape, 2.6–6 cm (1–2 3⁄8 in) long and 1.5–3 cm (5⁄8–1 1⁄8 in) broad. Sun-loving pecan trees can grow 70 to 100 feet tall and frequently live up to 200 years or longer, out-competing other flood plain species when given enough sun as young trees. The tree may reach 70 to 100 feet in height and 40 to 80 feet in width. These Spanish explorers called the pecan, nuez de la arruga, which roughly translates to "wrinkle nut". [26] Similarly, zinc deficiency causes rosetting of the leaves. Make sure the hardiness zone range of the tree you choose includes your area. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). [40] In 1988, Oklahoma enacted an official state meal which included pecan pie.[41]. Pecans are a hickory tree species with grayish-brown bark and thick narrow fissures. [7], The pecan tree is a large deciduous tree, growing to 20–40 m (66–131 ft) in height, rarely to 44 m (144 ft). Plant growth and development resemble a forest tree species rather than a domesticated crop. Yes, folks; if your pecan tree has sap dripping from it, it’s probably the digestive remnants from either the black margined or yellow pecan tree aphid. [6] The most common American pronunciation is /pɪˈkɑːn/. However, this proved technically difficult. Need help choosing the right pecan tree?Below are some helpful links for selecting the best pecan tree. Thomas Jefferson planted pecan trees, C. illinoinensis (Illinois nuts), in his nut orchard at his home, Monticello, in Virginia. Selection programs are ongoing at the state level, with Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, and others having trial plantings. Our only Native pecan tree, growing wild for over 100 years, towers over the surrounding trees. The taproot of a mature pecan tree grows to a depth of more than 10 feet, according to the University of Florida Extension Service. Differentiation between the subfamilies of Engelhardioideae and Juglandioideae occurred during the early Paleogene, about 64 million years ago. Problems encountered due to a poor choice in cultivars can be difficult or impossible to correct through cultural methods, and … [29], A pecan nut is 4% water, 72% fat, 9% protein, and 14% carbohydrates (table). [3] They can be grown from USDA hardiness zones approximately 5 to 9, and grow best where summers are long, hot and humid. Rich and distinctive in flavour and texture, the pecan has one of the highest fat contents of any vegetable product and a caloric value close to that of butter. 1. There is little agreement in the United States, even regionally, as to the "correct" pronunciation. (1964). Grafted varieties produce fruit in … All Rights Reserved. CAPE26: Carya pecan (Marshall) Engl. Pecan fat content consists principally of monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic acid (57% of total fat), and the polyunsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (30% of total fat). Hardy Pecan – The Hardy Pecan tree, Carya Illinoinensis, is a beautiful, majestic tree that grows to a height of 70 to 100 feet with a spread of 40 … The nut harvest for growers is typically around mid-October. Pecan trees naturally grow in warm areas of high humidity. This is the DBH of the tree. Collingwood, G. H., Brush, W. D., & Butches, D., eds. While selection work has been done since the late 19th century, most acreage of pecans grown today is of older cultivars, such as 'Stuart', 'Schley', 'Elliott', and 'Desirable', with known flaws but also with known production potential. Varieties adapted from the southern tier of states north through some parts of Iowa and even into southern Canada are available from nurseries. In 1792, William Bartram reported in his botanical book, Travels, a nut tree, Juglans exalata that some botanists today argue was the American pecan tree, but others argue was hickory, Carya ovata. The difference in each pecan variety comes down to two main distinctions: the size of the nut and the thickness of the shell. The leaves are alternate, 30–45 cm (12–18 in) long, and pinnate with 9–17 leaflets, each leaflet 5–12 cm (2–4 1⁄2 in) long and 2–6 cm (1–2 1⁄2 in) broad. [33], Pecan is a 32 chromosome species that readily hybridizes with other 32 chromosome members of the Carya genus, such as Carya ovata, Carya laciniosa, Carya cordiformis and has been reported to hybridize with 64 chromosome species such as Carya tomentosa. Stuart. This dispersal strategy coincides with the development of a husk around the fruit and a drastic change in the relative concentrations of fatty acids. Since pecan production is limited in the northern states, this is a perfect choice if you live up north and wish to plant a pecan tree… [8][9][10][11], Pecans were one of the most recently domesticated major crops. Various insects feed on the leaves stems and developing nuts. CBH (inches) / Pi = DBH (inches), where Pi is the constant (3.141592). Carya illinoinensis, commonly called hardy pecan, is a large deciduous lowland tree that is the largest of the hickories. [16][17], Native pecans in Mexico are adapted from zone 9 to zone 11. We also have several pecan tree pictures available for you to examine. As the common name implies, Carya illinoinensis is the tree responsible for producing Pecan nuts commonly used in snacks and cooking recipes, and is the state tree of Texas. The seeds of the pecan are edible, with a rich, buttery flavor. The pecan tree is prevalent in Louisiana as a shade tree in the landscape and also as a source of nuts for home use. Your climate plays an important role in whether a pecan tree will be successful. Native pecans (Carya illinoinensis) are difficult to crack, while cultivated hybrid cultivars, called papershell pecans, have thin shells that are easy to open. Pecans are famed for their tasty nuts. Most importantly, p… Pecan is a subclimax species [11,18]. They are very similar to the Elliott pecans, in that it has great oil content, tastes delicious, and make perfect halves. [30] Pecans are a moderate source (10-19% DV) of iron and B vitamins. The seed is an edible nut used as a snack and in various recipes, such as praline candy and pecan pie. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Pecan is classified as shade intolerant but is more shade tolerant than cottonwood or willow. In the Southeastern United States, nickel deficiency in C. illinoinensis produces a disorder called mouse-ear in trees fertilized with urea. We also offer some varieties that are hardy enough be grown successfully in cooler climates as far north as the upper Midwest (Zones 5-6). In the United States, pecans have a natural range that extends from central Texas to northern Mississippi and as far north as southern Illinois. They noted the particularly thin shell and acorn-like shape of the fruit, indicating they were indeed referring to pecans. Stuart. Includes extensive resources on pecan growth and pest … The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. Pecan tree varieties known for stronger branches are more desirable for planting in a landscape because they require less maintenance. Learn which plants thrive in your Hardiness Zone with our new interactive map! Cultivars, such as 'Elliot', are increasing in popularity due to resistance to Pecan scab. Next, use the Tree Species & Growth Factors table to find the growth factor associated with the species of tree. [39] California adopted it, along with the almond, pistachio, and walnut, as one of four state nuts in 2017. The pecan (Carya illinoinensis) is a species of hickory native to northern Mexico and the southern United States in the region of the Mississippi River. Pecan is a North American member of the walnut plant family (Juglandaceae) and is the only species in the hickory genus (Carya) of widespread horticultural significance. Juglandaceae are represented worldwide by between seven and 10 extant genera and more than 60 species. Pecan trees grow to 180 feet tall with large trunks up to 6 feet in diameter. The Spaniards took the pecan into Europe, Asia, and Africa beginning in the 16th century. Select varieties that are resistant to pecan scab. [13] Generally, two or more trees of different cultivars must be present to pollinate each other. The common name of this plant in Spanish is Carya illinoinensis. The seed is an edible nut used as a snack and in various recipes, such as praline candy and pecan pie. It responds well to release in all age groups, provided that the trees have good vigor. The 12-to-20-inch long compound leaves have alternate leaflets that are about 6 inches long. The nuts, or pecans, are produced during the summer and fall from the tree in the autumn. "USDA Pecan Breeding Program, National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Pecans and Hickories", "gov/carya species/illinoinensis ilnatdis", "Tecnología de Producción en Nogal Pecanero", "Pecan pralines a sweet tradition (no matter how you say it)", "Grill Gourmet: The Best Wood And Food Pairings To Try This Season", "Evolution, Phylogeny, and Systematics of Juglandaceae", National Center for Home Food Preservation—Home Preservation of pecans, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pecan&oldid=991304350, Trees of the Great Lakes region (North America), Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 10:41. It is the largest of all the hickory trees. These include ambrosia beetles, twig girdlers, pecan nut casebearer, hickory shuckworm, phylloxera, curculio, weevils, and several aphid species. [15] State level resources provide recommended varieties for specific regions. Pecans reach maturity at about twelve years old and can live as long as 300 years. The name "pecan" comes from an Algonquin word that describes nuts cracked with a stone. 3. [5] There are many variant pronunciations, some regional and others not. "Pecan" is from an Algonquian word variously referring to pecans, walnuts and hickory nuts. Their wide canopy of 75 ft. (23 m) provides plenty of shade underneath. The period of pollination groups all cultivars into two families: those that shed pollen before they can receive pollen (protandrous), and those that shed pollen after becoming receptive to pollen (protogynous). Non-grafted seedlings and native Pecan trees often take 10 to 15 years to begin to produce fruit. The pecan phylloxera consists of at least four species that attack leaves, twigs, and nuts. Look for varieties with resistance to scab disease, the most devastating for pecan trees. Scientific Name; CAOL6: Carya oliviformis (Michx. Most of these species are concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere of the New World, but some can be found on every continent except for Antarctica. [8] It typically has a spread of 12–23 m (39–75 ft) with a trunk up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) diameter. The pecan, in various aspects, is included in state symbols of Alabama, Arkansas, California, Pecan tree fun facts: The Pecan is the State Tree of Texas. Most breeding efforts for northern-adapted varieties have not been on a large enough scale to significantly affect production. The pecan may be eaten raw, sweetened or salted. The seeping from the pecan trees is simply honeydew , a sweet, charming nomenclature for aphid poop. f.) Nutt. Pecan trees originated in central and eastern North America. The husks of pecans develop from the bracts and the bracteoles only.[32]. Most such hybrids are unproductive. The outer husk is 3–4 mm (1⁄8–5⁄32 in) thick, starts out green and turns brown at maturity, at which time it splits off in four sections to release the thin-shelled seed. Varieties of pecan trees that are protogynous, or flowering first, are Wichita, Kiowa, Elliot, Curtis, Burkett and Candy. Most native or “wild” pecans have been known to have thicker shells and smaller nuts than improved varieties. Pecan plant clade, plant tribe and order fall under the scientific classification of Pecan. They have an open, spreading growth habit. Other tree species employing a strong taproot system include hickory, walnut, butternut, white oak and hornbeam. They are also found in the central and the northeast sections of Mexico. The second major step in the development of pecan was a change from wind-dispersed fruits to animal dispersion. Pecan trees (Carya illinoinensis) are relatively affordable and bring beauty, shade, and food to your landscape. [14], Choosing cultivars can be a complex practice, based on the Alternate Bearing Index (ABI) and their period of pollinating. Pecan trees originated in central and eastern North America. Pecans are a major ingredient in American praline candy. & Graebn. These range from scab to hickory shuckworm to shuck decline. [38] Arkansas adopted it as the official nut in 2009. Pecans are prone to infection by bacteria and fungi such as Pecan scab, especially in humid conditions. Look for trees with cold tolerance and insect and disease resistance. Outside the United States, Mexico produces nearly half of the world total, similar in volume to the United States, together accounting for 93% of global production. To speed nut production and retain the best tree characteristics, grafting from mature productive trees was the obvious strategy. Plan the perfect garden with our interactive tool →, autumn pecan pie image by Roslen Mack from, University of Arkansas Extension: Pecan Varieties Selection.

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